Button Text! Submit original article and get paid. Find out More
  • Windows 8 Could Have Nine Different Editions

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Neque

  • Don't miss these 10 Aurora Images

  • iPhotographs

  • Exotic Cars

  • Latest

    Wednesday, 17 October 2012

                                                          WHITE HOLES 

    Surely an entry must have an exit; there is no doubt about that. Black holes swallow huge amounts of matter as they travel through space, but where does all that material go?
    One thing is for certain, it can't stay inside it f

    or a indefinite amount of time, otherwise we probably wouldn't be here right now. Therefore, astrophysicists invented the concept of white hole.

    A white hole, in general relativity, is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, but from which matter and light have the ability to escape. In this sense it is the reverse of a black hole, which can be entered from the outside, but from which nothing, including light, has the ability to escape. White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes. In addition to a black hole region in the future, such a solution of the Einstein field equations has a white hole region in its past. However, this region does not exist for black holes that have formed through gravitational collapse, nor are there any known physical processes through which a white hole could be formed.

    According to the Theory of General Relativity, the acceleration force is invariant under time reversal conditions, thus both the black holes and the white holes have powerful gravitational fields which attract matter, and however they are differentiated by their behavior at the event horizon. While black holes swallow material, white holes eject it. World famous physicist Stephen Hawking, often called the successor of Albert Einstein, argue that if the quantum effects are taken into consideration these seemingly different objects are actually one and the same.Matter drawn towards the white hole can never cross its event horizon, as the previous recedes from it at local speed of light. Any infilling matter which previously crossed the event horizon is ejected towards infinity after it approached the point-like singularity at an infinitely small distance, as the white hole is being destroyed.

    Black holes were first predicted only a few days after Einstein released the Theory of General Relativity by German physicist and astronomer Karl Schwarzschild as a solution to Einstein's field equations, while trying to calculate how massive a object must be before the gravitational acceleration on its surface exceeds the speed of light. Sadly after publishing his work, Schwartzschild died in the First World War while serving in the German Army. Schwartzschild's solution to Einstein's field equations also predicts the possibility of faster than light travel through Schwartzschild wormholes. Material drawn in by a black hole may travel through a wormhole structure and emerge in another part of the universe through a white hole. Nevertheless, such wormhole has been proven to be extremely unstable, disconnecting between the two massive objects as fast as it forms. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamic strictly forbids such actions.

    Some astronomers even suggested the white holes might be responsible for the Big Bang event, more that 13.7 billion years ago which created the universe. Such types of white holes fed from a higher parent universe would be completely different from the traditional view of a white hole through the fact that it cannot be localized in space and its event horizon would surround a volume equal to that of the visible universe.Like black holes, white holes have properties like mass, charge, and angular momentum. They attract matter like any other mass, but objects falling towards a white hole would never actually reach the white hole's event horizon (though in the case of the maximally extended Schwarzschild solution, discussed below, the white hole event horizon in the past becomes a black hole event horizon in the future, so any object falling towards it will eventually reach the black hole horizon).

    In quantum mechanics, the black hole emits Hawking radiation, and so can come to thermal equilibrium with a gas of radiation. Since a thermal equilibrium state is time reversal invariant, Stephen Hawking argued that the time reverse of a black hole in thermal equilibrium is again a black hole in thermal equilibrium. This implies that black holes and white holes are the same object. The Hawking radiation from an ordinary black hole is then identified with the white hole emission. Hawking's semi-classical argument is reproduced in a quantum mechanical AdS/CFT treatment,where a black hole in anti-de Sitter space is described by a thermal gas in a gauge theory, whose time reversal is the same as itself.






    [The concept of a white hole only appears as part of the vacuum solution to Einstein’s field equations that are used to describe a Schwarzschild wormhole. A wormhole is a black hole on one end, drawing in matter, and a white hole on the other to emit matter. Schwarzschild wormholes are unstable. They collapse as soon as they form. Also, wormholes are only a solution to the Einstein field equations in a vacuum where no matter interacts with the hole. Real black holes are formed by the collapse of stars, but white holes shrink from matter so they could not exist in connection with true black holes because the presence of matter would cause them to collapse.A white hole is only a concept for higher levels of thinking. No one has every observed one and no one probably ever will. A few scientist think that a white hole could be part and parcel of a concept called a Fecund universe.]





    Science

    What is a White Hole ???

    Spark buzz  |  at  09:59

                                                          WHITE HOLES 

    Surely an entry must have an exit; there is no doubt about that. Black holes swallow huge amounts of matter as they travel through space, but where does all that material go?
    One thing is for certain, it can't stay inside it f

    or a indefinite amount of time, otherwise we probably wouldn't be here right now. Therefore, astrophysicists invented the concept of white hole.

    A white hole, in general relativity, is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, but from which matter and light have the ability to escape. In this sense it is the reverse of a black hole, which can be entered from the outside, but from which nothing, including light, has the ability to escape. White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes. In addition to a black hole region in the future, such a solution of the Einstein field equations has a white hole region in its past. However, this region does not exist for black holes that have formed through gravitational collapse, nor are there any known physical processes through which a white hole could be formed.

    According to the Theory of General Relativity, the acceleration force is invariant under time reversal conditions, thus both the black holes and the white holes have powerful gravitational fields which attract matter, and however they are differentiated by their behavior at the event horizon. While black holes swallow material, white holes eject it. World famous physicist Stephen Hawking, often called the successor of Albert Einstein, argue that if the quantum effects are taken into consideration these seemingly different objects are actually one and the same.Matter drawn towards the white hole can never cross its event horizon, as the previous recedes from it at local speed of light. Any infilling matter which previously crossed the event horizon is ejected towards infinity after it approached the point-like singularity at an infinitely small distance, as the white hole is being destroyed.

    Black holes were first predicted only a few days after Einstein released the Theory of General Relativity by German physicist and astronomer Karl Schwarzschild as a solution to Einstein's field equations, while trying to calculate how massive a object must be before the gravitational acceleration on its surface exceeds the speed of light. Sadly after publishing his work, Schwartzschild died in the First World War while serving in the German Army. Schwartzschild's solution to Einstein's field equations also predicts the possibility of faster than light travel through Schwartzschild wormholes. Material drawn in by a black hole may travel through a wormhole structure and emerge in another part of the universe through a white hole. Nevertheless, such wormhole has been proven to be extremely unstable, disconnecting between the two massive objects as fast as it forms. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamic strictly forbids such actions.

    Some astronomers even suggested the white holes might be responsible for the Big Bang event, more that 13.7 billion years ago which created the universe. Such types of white holes fed from a higher parent universe would be completely different from the traditional view of a white hole through the fact that it cannot be localized in space and its event horizon would surround a volume equal to that of the visible universe.Like black holes, white holes have properties like mass, charge, and angular momentum. They attract matter like any other mass, but objects falling towards a white hole would never actually reach the white hole's event horizon (though in the case of the maximally extended Schwarzschild solution, discussed below, the white hole event horizon in the past becomes a black hole event horizon in the future, so any object falling towards it will eventually reach the black hole horizon).

    In quantum mechanics, the black hole emits Hawking radiation, and so can come to thermal equilibrium with a gas of radiation. Since a thermal equilibrium state is time reversal invariant, Stephen Hawking argued that the time reverse of a black hole in thermal equilibrium is again a black hole in thermal equilibrium. This implies that black holes and white holes are the same object. The Hawking radiation from an ordinary black hole is then identified with the white hole emission. Hawking's semi-classical argument is reproduced in a quantum mechanical AdS/CFT treatment,where a black hole in anti-de Sitter space is described by a thermal gas in a gauge theory, whose time reversal is the same as itself.






    [The concept of a white hole only appears as part of the vacuum solution to Einstein’s field equations that are used to describe a Schwarzschild wormhole. A wormhole is a black hole on one end, drawing in matter, and a white hole on the other to emit matter. Schwarzschild wormholes are unstable. They collapse as soon as they form. Also, wormholes are only a solution to the Einstein field equations in a vacuum where no matter interacts with the hole. Real black holes are formed by the collapse of stars, but white holes shrink from matter so they could not exist in connection with true black holes because the presence of matter would cause them to collapse.A white hole is only a concept for higher levels of thinking. No one has every observed one and no one probably ever will. A few scientist think that a white hole could be part and parcel of a concept called a Fecund universe.]





    Wednesday, 1 August 2012


    1 Vladimir Putin
    Vladimir Putin of Russia with unbelievable wealth of $40 billion, he becomes the world’s richest politician in 2012. He is now the Prime minister of Russia. His money basically comes from his investments and political services.

    King Bhumibol Adulyadej 
    King Bhumibol Adulyadej holds the current position of Monarch in Thailand and He was born on December 5, 1927. He started serving his people in June 9, 1946. He is known to be the longest serving head of state. He is now known to be the 2nd richest politician with $ 10 billion net worth.


    Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 
    On July 15, 1946, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah marked the date of his birth. He became the 29th Sultan of Brunei. He also became the first Prime Minister of Brunei. He was involved in Gas Industry and some oil business which made him so prosperous. Bolkiah is the 3rd richest politician worldwide. His total wealth is amounting to $ 20 billion.


    Michael Bloomberg 
    AT the age of 70, Michael Bloomberg is the 4th most prosperous politicians of the world. He is currently serving as New York City Mayor.  With an outstanding net worth of $ 19.5 billion, he is also the 12thwealthiest person in the US. Moreover, he owns and runs the Bloomberg L.P.


    King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud 
    King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is Saudi Arabia’s King. After King Fahd’s death, who is his half-brother, he succeeded him and happened on August 1, 2005. He owns a total wealth of $ 18 billion making him not just one of the world’s richest royals but also the 5th wealthiest politician in the world.


    Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan
    At the age of 64, Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan is the President of United Arab of Emirates. He replaced his father. He is also the Chairperson of the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. He was also chosen to be the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi in 1969. With all the positions he acquired in his life, his inheritances, real estate, and oil business, he is now the 6th richest politician there is in the whole world. Is total riches reached a grand total of $ 15 billion.


    Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart
    Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart was born in March 28, 1926. She is a Duchess of Spain. She is presently the Head of the House of Alba. In between 1930-1940, she was politically outstanding. Cayatana was married three times in her life. She holds the 7th position as the world’s richest politicians with $ 4.9 billion of total riches and properties.


    Najib Mikati 
    Najib Mikati is currently the Lebanon’s Prime Minister. He will be turning 57 years old on November 24, 2012. He was once an owner of a telecommunications company based in Lebanon. His career in politics started in 1968. He holds the 8th spot of the world’s richest politicians because of his total earnings of $ 2.8 billion.


    Donald Trump
    Donald Trump is an American businessman, born in June 14, 1946. He also became famous as a TV personality. He was given the well known nickname “The Donald” by media. In 2010 he became interested in politics. Just recently, he ran for the position of president of USA .In his entire life; he has accumulated $ 2.7 billion (net total). He acquired it mostly through real estate investments.


    10 H. Vasanthakumar
    H. Vasanthakumar is an Indian. He seemed to be very young in the politics world because his career in the politics just started in 2006. He is also a time-honoured businessman. He owns the Vasath & Co that sells electronics and home appliances in India. He is the top 10 richest politician of the world who owns 2 billion dollars of riches.

    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  
    Top Tenz

    Top 10 Richest Politicians of the World

    Spark buzz  |  at  11:50


    1 Vladimir Putin
    Vladimir Putin of Russia with unbelievable wealth of $40 billion, he becomes the world’s richest politician in 2012. He is now the Prime minister of Russia. His money basically comes from his investments and political services.

    King Bhumibol Adulyadej 
    King Bhumibol Adulyadej holds the current position of Monarch in Thailand and He was born on December 5, 1927. He started serving his people in June 9, 1946. He is known to be the longest serving head of state. He is now known to be the 2nd richest politician with $ 10 billion net worth.


    Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 
    On July 15, 1946, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah marked the date of his birth. He became the 29th Sultan of Brunei. He also became the first Prime Minister of Brunei. He was involved in Gas Industry and some oil business which made him so prosperous. Bolkiah is the 3rd richest politician worldwide. His total wealth is amounting to $ 20 billion.


    Michael Bloomberg 
    AT the age of 70, Michael Bloomberg is the 4th most prosperous politicians of the world. He is currently serving as New York City Mayor.  With an outstanding net worth of $ 19.5 billion, he is also the 12thwealthiest person in the US. Moreover, he owns and runs the Bloomberg L.P.


    King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud 
    King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is Saudi Arabia’s King. After King Fahd’s death, who is his half-brother, he succeeded him and happened on August 1, 2005. He owns a total wealth of $ 18 billion making him not just one of the world’s richest royals but also the 5th wealthiest politician in the world.


    Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan
    At the age of 64, Khalifa Bin Zayed al Nahyan is the President of United Arab of Emirates. He replaced his father. He is also the Chairperson of the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. He was also chosen to be the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi in 1969. With all the positions he acquired in his life, his inheritances, real estate, and oil business, he is now the 6th richest politician there is in the whole world. Is total riches reached a grand total of $ 15 billion.


    Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart
    Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart was born in March 28, 1926. She is a Duchess of Spain. She is presently the Head of the House of Alba. In between 1930-1940, she was politically outstanding. Cayatana was married three times in her life. She holds the 7th position as the world’s richest politicians with $ 4.9 billion of total riches and properties.


    Najib Mikati 
    Najib Mikati is currently the Lebanon’s Prime Minister. He will be turning 57 years old on November 24, 2012. He was once an owner of a telecommunications company based in Lebanon. His career in politics started in 1968. He holds the 8th spot of the world’s richest politicians because of his total earnings of $ 2.8 billion.


    Donald Trump
    Donald Trump is an American businessman, born in June 14, 1946. He also became famous as a TV personality. He was given the well known nickname “The Donald” by media. In 2010 he became interested in politics. Just recently, he ran for the position of president of USA .In his entire life; he has accumulated $ 2.7 billion (net total). He acquired it mostly through real estate investments.


    10 H. Vasanthakumar
    H. Vasanthakumar is an Indian. He seemed to be very young in the politics world because his career in the politics just started in 2006. He is also a time-honoured businessman. He owns the Vasath & Co that sells electronics and home appliances in India. He is the top 10 richest politician of the world who owns 2 billion dollars of riches.

    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    Monday, 30 July 2012

    Grand Unification Theory
    For decades, physicists have been trying to make sense of the difference between Isaac Newton’s classical physics (you know, what you use to play pool) Einstein‘s relativistic physics, that involve very large or massive things at enormous velocities, and Heisenberg’s (and others’) quantum physics, which concerns things so small that you can’t even measure them without changing the result. These three sets of physical laws seem to play by their own rules, largely ignoring each other, and yet they all relate to the same universe. And so physicists have hunted for the Grand Unification Theory, which would substitute for all of these incomplete sets of laws and make sense of it all. Perhaps it doesn’t exist. Or perhaps it’s just too complex for human minds to grasp. One way or the other, it’s going to keep scientists arguing for some time to come.


    Multiple Universes
    Current quantum physics raises the possibility that there are many universes besides our own, existing in the same space and time, but only interacting in certain limited ways. These universes may have their own separate histories and futures, and even their own laws of physics.


    Antimatter
    Matter and antimatter are, in theory, created at the same time by the same event. When a normal baryonic particle is created, an antiparticle of the same mass and opposite charge is also created. However, while we have created antimatter in laboratories on Earth, we don’t see it in the universe around us. No one seems to know what happened to all the antimatter that should be there…


    End of the Universe
    Following the question of the end of the universe is the question of the end of the universe. Opinions vary on whether we can expect the universe to ever expire. There are several possibilities. One is that the universe will continue to expand, and eventually become so spread out that all matter and energy is just a homogeneous cloud of thin, lukewarm dust. Another is that gravity will eventually catch up with all the matter, and the universe will slow down and fall back into a single point, which may spark another big bang. Yet another theory notes that baryons and protons, the building blocks of matter, don’t seem to be being created naturally anymore, and if they decay (as some other particles do), the universe will simply fade out as all the particles just cease to be. In general, nothing untoward is expected to happen to the universe for many billion years, which will probably be a relief to those with long-range investments.


    Dark Matter / Dark Energy
    Current models of the universe, and observations made by high-tech instruments, point to there being an enormous amount of matter in the universe beyond what we can actually see. In fact, we can only seem to perceive about 4% of the stuff in the universe directly. The rest is invisible, or “dark matter,” a term that just means that we have no idea what it is. Accompanying this dark matter is some type of energy that, like dark matter, we can’t perceive directly. We call this, in a moment of inspiration, “dark energy.” Apparently, there’s even more of this than there is dark matter.


    The Beginning of the Universe
    How did the universe begin? Did the universe ever begin? If the universe includes everything that we know, including time, could there possibly even be a “before” before the beginning of the universe. Current theories generally talk about a “Big Bang,” which is a massive expansion of all matter and energy from a single point, which is still continuing through the present day. What started the bang? Where did all the energy and matter come from? Are these questions even meaningful? What about creationism, if that is for you? If God created the universe and all the physical laws in it, what is he doing now that it is running itself?


    Time
    You think you know what time is? Okay, try defining it without using any terms that rely on time. Time is… well, it’s time. It’s what keeps every event from happening simultaneously, and it’s what distinguishes something that happened in the past from something that will happen in the future. Is it a dimension, like space? Is it a quality of matter? Is it merely an illusion , possibly created to boost sales of digital watches? The smartest guys in the world get headaches from this one.


    Consciousness
    What is the mind? Behaviorists say that it is just conditioned responses. But it’s hard to deny that our ability to reflect on our own thoughts is something distinct and interesting. Is it a mere side-effect of the way our brains work? If so, how long will it be before a computer becomes self-aware and asks for equal rights? How can you tell true consciousness from something designed to simulate it? Can consciousness survive  the death of the brain that carries it? There are a lot of questions, but until we can have an equal conversation with either a robot or a ghost, there really won’t be any answers.


    Extraterrestrial Intelligence
    This is really a simple mystery. Is there other intelligent life out there in the universe? Carl Sagan reminds us that if we exist, then, no matter how rare intelligence is in the universe, given how huge the universe is, we must have many neighbors out there somewhere. Frank Drake, an astrophysicist, created an equation that helps figure out how much intelligent life there is in the universe, and estimated that if only one in a billion planets has intelligent life, then there must still be over 6 billion planets with intelligence  on them. Enrico Fermi, however, pointed out that if life is that common, then it is virtually impossible that we haven’t yet detected any signs of other intelligent life in the universe. So, the real mystery is this: what is it about Earth that makes no one want to play with us?


    10 The Tunguska Explosion
    On the 30th of June, 1908 (or the 17th, at the time; the calendar has been revamped since then), at 7:17 am (local time), something exploded over a region of forest in the Tunguska River Valley in Siberia, Russia. Locals many miles away saw something bright blue streak toward the area and explode with incredible force, sufficient to register on instruments in England. Later examination of the site showed that trees had been knocked down in a radial pattern from a central point, indicating an air burst of some kind. To this day, scientists aren’t sure what it was, and generally figure that it was a meteor or fragment of a comet  Why did it explode in the air? Why haven’t we found any pieces? The mystery has kept UFO aficionados up at nights since then.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  
    Top Tenz

    Top 10 Mysteries of the Universe

    Spark buzz  |  at  12:40

    Grand Unification Theory
    For decades, physicists have been trying to make sense of the difference between Isaac Newton’s classical physics (you know, what you use to play pool) Einstein‘s relativistic physics, that involve very large or massive things at enormous velocities, and Heisenberg’s (and others’) quantum physics, which concerns things so small that you can’t even measure them without changing the result. These three sets of physical laws seem to play by their own rules, largely ignoring each other, and yet they all relate to the same universe. And so physicists have hunted for the Grand Unification Theory, which would substitute for all of these incomplete sets of laws and make sense of it all. Perhaps it doesn’t exist. Or perhaps it’s just too complex for human minds to grasp. One way or the other, it’s going to keep scientists arguing for some time to come.


    Multiple Universes
    Current quantum physics raises the possibility that there are many universes besides our own, existing in the same space and time, but only interacting in certain limited ways. These universes may have their own separate histories and futures, and even their own laws of physics.


    Antimatter
    Matter and antimatter are, in theory, created at the same time by the same event. When a normal baryonic particle is created, an antiparticle of the same mass and opposite charge is also created. However, while we have created antimatter in laboratories on Earth, we don’t see it in the universe around us. No one seems to know what happened to all the antimatter that should be there…


    End of the Universe
    Following the question of the end of the universe is the question of the end of the universe. Opinions vary on whether we can expect the universe to ever expire. There are several possibilities. One is that the universe will continue to expand, and eventually become so spread out that all matter and energy is just a homogeneous cloud of thin, lukewarm dust. Another is that gravity will eventually catch up with all the matter, and the universe will slow down and fall back into a single point, which may spark another big bang. Yet another theory notes that baryons and protons, the building blocks of matter, don’t seem to be being created naturally anymore, and if they decay (as some other particles do), the universe will simply fade out as all the particles just cease to be. In general, nothing untoward is expected to happen to the universe for many billion years, which will probably be a relief to those with long-range investments.


    Dark Matter / Dark Energy
    Current models of the universe, and observations made by high-tech instruments, point to there being an enormous amount of matter in the universe beyond what we can actually see. In fact, we can only seem to perceive about 4% of the stuff in the universe directly. The rest is invisible, or “dark matter,” a term that just means that we have no idea what it is. Accompanying this dark matter is some type of energy that, like dark matter, we can’t perceive directly. We call this, in a moment of inspiration, “dark energy.” Apparently, there’s even more of this than there is dark matter.


    The Beginning of the Universe
    How did the universe begin? Did the universe ever begin? If the universe includes everything that we know, including time, could there possibly even be a “before” before the beginning of the universe. Current theories generally talk about a “Big Bang,” which is a massive expansion of all matter and energy from a single point, which is still continuing through the present day. What started the bang? Where did all the energy and matter come from? Are these questions even meaningful? What about creationism, if that is for you? If God created the universe and all the physical laws in it, what is he doing now that it is running itself?


    Time
    You think you know what time is? Okay, try defining it without using any terms that rely on time. Time is… well, it’s time. It’s what keeps every event from happening simultaneously, and it’s what distinguishes something that happened in the past from something that will happen in the future. Is it a dimension, like space? Is it a quality of matter? Is it merely an illusion , possibly created to boost sales of digital watches? The smartest guys in the world get headaches from this one.


    Consciousness
    What is the mind? Behaviorists say that it is just conditioned responses. But it’s hard to deny that our ability to reflect on our own thoughts is something distinct and interesting. Is it a mere side-effect of the way our brains work? If so, how long will it be before a computer becomes self-aware and asks for equal rights? How can you tell true consciousness from something designed to simulate it? Can consciousness survive  the death of the brain that carries it? There are a lot of questions, but until we can have an equal conversation with either a robot or a ghost, there really won’t be any answers.


    Extraterrestrial Intelligence
    This is really a simple mystery. Is there other intelligent life out there in the universe? Carl Sagan reminds us that if we exist, then, no matter how rare intelligence is in the universe, given how huge the universe is, we must have many neighbors out there somewhere. Frank Drake, an astrophysicist, created an equation that helps figure out how much intelligent life there is in the universe, and estimated that if only one in a billion planets has intelligent life, then there must still be over 6 billion planets with intelligence  on them. Enrico Fermi, however, pointed out that if life is that common, then it is virtually impossible that we haven’t yet detected any signs of other intelligent life in the universe. So, the real mystery is this: what is it about Earth that makes no one want to play with us?


    10 The Tunguska Explosion
    On the 30th of June, 1908 (or the 17th, at the time; the calendar has been revamped since then), at 7:17 am (local time), something exploded over a region of forest in the Tunguska River Valley in Siberia, Russia. Locals many miles away saw something bright blue streak toward the area and explode with incredible force, sufficient to register on instruments in England. Later examination of the site showed that trees had been knocked down in a radial pattern from a central point, indicating an air burst of some kind. To this day, scientists aren’t sure what it was, and generally figure that it was a meteor or fragment of a comet  Why did it explode in the air? Why haven’t we found any pieces? The mystery has kept UFO aficionados up at nights since then.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    The Antarctic sponge
    The absolute granddaddy of all long lived creatures on earth are the Antarctic sponges.  Just because the environment in which they exist is so cold and hostile, these remarkable creatures have evolved to grow unbelievably slowly, so much so that scientists firmly believe that at least  one specimen has lived for no less than 1,550 years. Research is jut beginning to reveal that these ancient organisms may well be hiding medicinal secrets that could answer many of the questions posed by modern heath officials. 


    The Lamellibrachia Tube Worms
    Colorful and extremely strange tube worms are found in deep sea waters, the most famous of them in the Gulf of Mexico, between 1500 and 2500 ft below the surface. Reaching 10 ft in length, and growing at very slow rates indeed, individuals can easily live over 250 years. Large groups, comprising up to several thousand individual worms, are the usual occurrence, with perhaps 100 different species gathered in the one place. Many are found only at these locations, known as seeps, where hydrocarbon vents, found on the ocean floor, spew out the minerals on which they feed.


    The Giant Tortoise
    Currently believed to be the longest living vertebrate on the planet, the Giant Tortoise is an amazing creature. An example known as Harriet, rumored to have been captured by Charles Darwin himself, was 176 years old, when died in an Australian zoo in 2006. Another specimen, of the  Aldabra species, also passed away in March 2006, and is thought to have been 255 years old at that time. The Aldabra are the only species remaining in the wild, less than twenty specimens on the Galapagos islands, of a creature with a history going back at least 250 million years.. 


    The tantalising Tuatara
    Considered to be living fossils, or even the last of the dinosaurs Tuataras have been flourishing for at least  200 million years, as a species, and are undoubtedly among the longest-living vertebrates on the planet. One captive Tuatara, known to be at least 111 years old, recently fathered its first egg, and there are suggestions that these animals can get to 200 years of age. Greenish brown in colour, measuring up to 30 in. in length, and weigh up to 3lbs., Tuataras have spiny crests along thier backs,  male ones being more pronounced. Two rows of upper jaw teeth overlap the one lower jaw  row, a feature unique amongst all living species. These unusual creatures also possess  a paretal eye, thought to be used in judging the cycle of the seasons.


    The Geoduck or Saltwater Clam
    A very popular seafood in the USA and around the world comes in the form of Clams, but Geoducks,  or Saltwater Clams, are actually among the longest living creatures on the planet, having a life expectancy averaging 146 years,  though there has been one recorded as being 160 years of age. It is thought that they live so long because of low wear and tear on their bodies.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  
    Nature

    Some Really Long Living Creatures Compared To Us

    Spark buzz  |  at  11:50

    The Antarctic sponge
    The absolute granddaddy of all long lived creatures on earth are the Antarctic sponges.  Just because the environment in which they exist is so cold and hostile, these remarkable creatures have evolved to grow unbelievably slowly, so much so that scientists firmly believe that at least  one specimen has lived for no less than 1,550 years. Research is jut beginning to reveal that these ancient organisms may well be hiding medicinal secrets that could answer many of the questions posed by modern heath officials. 


    The Lamellibrachia Tube Worms
    Colorful and extremely strange tube worms are found in deep sea waters, the most famous of them in the Gulf of Mexico, between 1500 and 2500 ft below the surface. Reaching 10 ft in length, and growing at very slow rates indeed, individuals can easily live over 250 years. Large groups, comprising up to several thousand individual worms, are the usual occurrence, with perhaps 100 different species gathered in the one place. Many are found only at these locations, known as seeps, where hydrocarbon vents, found on the ocean floor, spew out the minerals on which they feed.


    The Giant Tortoise
    Currently believed to be the longest living vertebrate on the planet, the Giant Tortoise is an amazing creature. An example known as Harriet, rumored to have been captured by Charles Darwin himself, was 176 years old, when died in an Australian zoo in 2006. Another specimen, of the  Aldabra species, also passed away in March 2006, and is thought to have been 255 years old at that time. The Aldabra are the only species remaining in the wild, less than twenty specimens on the Galapagos islands, of a creature with a history going back at least 250 million years.. 


    The tantalising Tuatara
    Considered to be living fossils, or even the last of the dinosaurs Tuataras have been flourishing for at least  200 million years, as a species, and are undoubtedly among the longest-living vertebrates on the planet. One captive Tuatara, known to be at least 111 years old, recently fathered its first egg, and there are suggestions that these animals can get to 200 years of age. Greenish brown in colour, measuring up to 30 in. in length, and weigh up to 3lbs., Tuataras have spiny crests along thier backs,  male ones being more pronounced. Two rows of upper jaw teeth overlap the one lower jaw  row, a feature unique amongst all living species. These unusual creatures also possess  a paretal eye, thought to be used in judging the cycle of the seasons.


    The Geoduck or Saltwater Clam
    A very popular seafood in the USA and around the world comes in the form of Clams, but Geoducks,  or Saltwater Clams, are actually among the longest living creatures on the planet, having a life expectancy averaging 146 years,  though there has been one recorded as being 160 years of age. It is thought that they live so long because of low wear and tear on their bodies.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    The Yeti Crab
    The only recently discovered Yeti Crab, long, furry appendages sticking from it that look for all the world  like a sea sloth of some variety, was found during a deep-sea diving expedition in 2006, inhabiting the Pacific Ocean floor, so completely unknown to biologists that a complete new taxonomic family group had to be named to include it. Yeti Crabs are blind and white, their fur supporting colonies of bacteria , as it thrives in the warm waters close by hydrothermal vents, 7,500 ft below the waves.


    The Almiqui Solenodon
    Until 2003, when the creature was rediscovered in the eastern mountains of Cuba, the Almiqui was believed extinct, by naturalists, for several decades. Belonging in the family group of the Haitian Solenodon, the Almiqui has unusual feature, among mammals,  having saliva which is venomous. Not been seen since 1977, there was great delight when a farmer found a live specimen in 2003. Discovered during the 19th century, and only sighted thirty-six times in 150 years, this creature was highly elusive. The wholesale felling of rainforest decimated all Solenodon populations, and pet dogs, along with house cats, accounted for many more, though it now seems they are slowly coming back.


    The Giant Isopod
    One of the most disgusting bugs you may never actually see is the truly horrid looking Giant Isopod. Appearing for all the world to be a real-life, pig size cockroach the isopod is in reality related to shrimp and crabs, and a crustacean. Scavengers that feast on the bodies of dead creatures , they wander around the sea floor between 600 and 7,000ft down in the oceans, feasting mainly on dead fish, squid and whale.


    The Sao Tome Shrew
    Very rarely seen by any human, the  species known as the São Tomé shrew remains very much a mystery, detailed information on appearance and habits very scarce. A male of this species was caught in 1982,almost a full century after it was firs known of their existence.. This secretive mammal was described as having a body covered in dark brown fur,  with long, pink tail, pink feet, and hind legs long enough to be used for both jumping or climbing With rather small, dark eyes, half hidden by facial fur, and large, forward facing ears, the Almiqui has an unusually long snout, surrounded by  pale whiskers 


    The Mola Mola/Sunfish
    Mola mola, as it is known in native language, but which we would call the Sunfish, is the heaviest in the world as far as bony fish go, averaging as adults 1,000 kg in weight. These behemoths exist by eating mainly jellyfish, but this nutritionally poor prey animal must be consumed in large amounts, if the Sunfish are to develop and maintain their enormous bodies. Females produce more eggs, at one time, than any other vertebrate known on earth. Unfortunately for these magnificent creatures, over-fishing, and a terrible proliferation of plastic waste, often consumed by them in error, causes far too many to expire prematurely, so the species is highly endangered. 


    The Long beaked Echidna
    Long-beaked echidnas are neither anteater nor porcupine, instead being very rare, egg-laying mammals, only known to exist in Papua New Guinea. A relative of the platypus, this nocturnal creature spends virtually all its time underground, using the tubular  snout in the hunt  for prey such as worms or insect larvae. Soft foods are the only option, because the echidna does not possess teeth. Hatchlings,  known as ‘puggles’, reside in a sticky pouch on the mothers underside, receiving milk from mammary patches. 


    The Longeared Jeboa
    The nocturnal, mouse-like Long-eared Jerboa, shaped rather like a tiny kangaroo,  employs an elongated tail, and powerful hind legs, for jumping, both as transport mode and escape mechanism. This highly endangered rodent is found only in the remote parts of the Mongolian Gobi desert, having ears 33% larger than its head, to better listen for prey eating mainly insects. It is the only species of its genus, making it not only rare but extraordinary.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  
    Nature

    Some Truly Weird Animal Species

    Spark buzz  |  at  10:29

    The Yeti Crab
    The only recently discovered Yeti Crab, long, furry appendages sticking from it that look for all the world  like a sea sloth of some variety, was found during a deep-sea diving expedition in 2006, inhabiting the Pacific Ocean floor, so completely unknown to biologists that a complete new taxonomic family group had to be named to include it. Yeti Crabs are blind and white, their fur supporting colonies of bacteria , as it thrives in the warm waters close by hydrothermal vents, 7,500 ft below the waves.


    The Almiqui Solenodon
    Until 2003, when the creature was rediscovered in the eastern mountains of Cuba, the Almiqui was believed extinct, by naturalists, for several decades. Belonging in the family group of the Haitian Solenodon, the Almiqui has unusual feature, among mammals,  having saliva which is venomous. Not been seen since 1977, there was great delight when a farmer found a live specimen in 2003. Discovered during the 19th century, and only sighted thirty-six times in 150 years, this creature was highly elusive. The wholesale felling of rainforest decimated all Solenodon populations, and pet dogs, along with house cats, accounted for many more, though it now seems they are slowly coming back.


    The Giant Isopod
    One of the most disgusting bugs you may never actually see is the truly horrid looking Giant Isopod. Appearing for all the world to be a real-life, pig size cockroach the isopod is in reality related to shrimp and crabs, and a crustacean. Scavengers that feast on the bodies of dead creatures , they wander around the sea floor between 600 and 7,000ft down in the oceans, feasting mainly on dead fish, squid and whale.


    The Sao Tome Shrew
    Very rarely seen by any human, the  species known as the São Tomé shrew remains very much a mystery, detailed information on appearance and habits very scarce. A male of this species was caught in 1982,almost a full century after it was firs known of their existence.. This secretive mammal was described as having a body covered in dark brown fur,  with long, pink tail, pink feet, and hind legs long enough to be used for both jumping or climbing With rather small, dark eyes, half hidden by facial fur, and large, forward facing ears, the Almiqui has an unusually long snout, surrounded by  pale whiskers 


    The Mola Mola/Sunfish
    Mola mola, as it is known in native language, but which we would call the Sunfish, is the heaviest in the world as far as bony fish go, averaging as adults 1,000 kg in weight. These behemoths exist by eating mainly jellyfish, but this nutritionally poor prey animal must be consumed in large amounts, if the Sunfish are to develop and maintain their enormous bodies. Females produce more eggs, at one time, than any other vertebrate known on earth. Unfortunately for these magnificent creatures, over-fishing, and a terrible proliferation of plastic waste, often consumed by them in error, causes far too many to expire prematurely, so the species is highly endangered. 


    The Long beaked Echidna
    Long-beaked echidnas are neither anteater nor porcupine, instead being very rare, egg-laying mammals, only known to exist in Papua New Guinea. A relative of the platypus, this nocturnal creature spends virtually all its time underground, using the tubular  snout in the hunt  for prey such as worms or insect larvae. Soft foods are the only option, because the echidna does not possess teeth. Hatchlings,  known as ‘puggles’, reside in a sticky pouch on the mothers underside, receiving milk from mammary patches. 


    The Longeared Jeboa
    The nocturnal, mouse-like Long-eared Jerboa, shaped rather like a tiny kangaroo,  employs an elongated tail, and powerful hind legs, for jumping, both as transport mode and escape mechanism. This highly endangered rodent is found only in the remote parts of the Mongolian Gobi desert, having ears 33% larger than its head, to better listen for prey eating mainly insects. It is the only species of its genus, making it not only rare but extraordinary.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  


    Google is everyone favorite search engine and I’m not sure how many of you really know history behind Google. Here are some interesting facts about Google search engine, which you would love to know.

    * Google started in January, 1996 as a research project at Stanford University, by Ph.D. candidates Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were 24 years old and 23 years old respectively.

    * Googol is a mathematical term 1 followed by one hundred zeroes. The term was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasne.

    * The name Google™ was an accident. A spelling mistake made by the original founders who thought they were going for ˜Googol™”.

    * Google consists of over 450,000 servers, racked up in clusters located in data centers around the world.

    * When Serge Brin and Larry Page were born, Bill Gates had a nervous breakdown.

    * Atlantis, Shakespeare’s unknown diaries and Mozart’s unreleased album were found using Google.

    * The infamous “I’m feeling lucky” button is nearly never used. However, in trials it was found that removing it would somehow reduce the Google experience.

    * Google translates billions of HTML web pages into a display format for WAP and i-mode phones and wireless handled devices.

    * 57% of American kids say ‘Google’ as their first word.

    * 620 million visitors visit Google.com daily.

    * 97% of Google Revenue comes from their advertising services.

    * Google processes 20 Petabyte of information daily.

    * As of December 2009, Google’s assets were valued at $40.5 billion.

    * Google has a world-class staff of more than 2,668 employees known as Googlers. The company headquarters is called the Googleplex.

    * Google’s index of web pages is the largest in the world, comprising of billions of web pages. Google searches this immense collection of web pages often in less than half asecond.

    * All the letters used in the ‘Google’ word are copyrighted by Google. According to forecasts, Google will buy rights for other letters soon (which made Chinese and Japanese very happy). The company name won’t change, though.

    * When Google started it indexed 25,000 web pages. Today Google indexes billions of web pages and each time it grows by 10-25%.

    * According to Google “As the web grows search becomes more and more important”. It acts like a library , the bigger the library the more important is the index.

    * The biggest break in search came when Google introduced their improved spell checker seen as “Did you mean ?”. This feature doubled their traffic and soon the developers discovered that the ideal placement was at the bottom of the search results.

    * Every now and then Google makes small changes and test them with a given set of users. The users aren’t told of this. They are presented with a new interface and the testers observe how the users react to it.

    * There isn’t any restriction for proper dress code in the Google office. This may include pajamas and even super hero costumes

    * Google receives daily search requests from all over the world, including Antarctica.

    * Google’s Home Page Has 63 Validation Errors. 

    * The Google search engine receives about a billion search requests per day.

    * The infamous “I’m feeling lucky” button is nearly never used. However, in trials it was     found that removing it would somehow reduce the Google experience. Users wanted it kept. It was a comfort button.

    * Due to the sparseness of the homepage, in early user tests they noted people just sitting looking at the screen. After a minute of nothingness, the tester intervened and asked ‘Whats up?’ to which they replied “We are waiting for the rest of it”. To solve that particular problem the Google Copyright message was inserted to act as a crude end of page marker.

    * The name ‘Google’ was an accident. A spelling mistake made by the original founders who thought they were going for ‘Googol’.

    * Google has the largest network of translators in the world.

    * Employees are encouraged to use 20% of their time working on their own projects. Google News, Orkut are both examples of projects that grew from this working model.

    * Google consists of over 450,000 servers, racked up in clusters located in data centers around the world.

    * Google started in January, 1996 as a research project at Stanford University, by Ph.D. candidates Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were 24 years old and 23 years old respectively.

    * Google is a mathematical term 1 followed by one hundred zeroes. The term was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasne.

    * Number of languages in which you can have the Google home page set up, including Urdu, Latin and Klingon: 88

    * Google translates billions of HTML web pages into a display format for WAP and i-mode phones and wireless handheld devices.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    Uncategorized

    Delicious Google Facts

    Spark buzz  |  at  07:47


    Google is everyone favorite search engine and I’m not sure how many of you really know history behind Google. Here are some interesting facts about Google search engine, which you would love to know.

    * Google started in January, 1996 as a research project at Stanford University, by Ph.D. candidates Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were 24 years old and 23 years old respectively.

    * Googol is a mathematical term 1 followed by one hundred zeroes. The term was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasne.

    * The name Google™ was an accident. A spelling mistake made by the original founders who thought they were going for ˜Googol™”.

    * Google consists of over 450,000 servers, racked up in clusters located in data centers around the world.

    * When Serge Brin and Larry Page were born, Bill Gates had a nervous breakdown.

    * Atlantis, Shakespeare’s unknown diaries and Mozart’s unreleased album were found using Google.

    * The infamous “I’m feeling lucky” button is nearly never used. However, in trials it was found that removing it would somehow reduce the Google experience.

    * Google translates billions of HTML web pages into a display format for WAP and i-mode phones and wireless handled devices.

    * 57% of American kids say ‘Google’ as their first word.

    * 620 million visitors visit Google.com daily.

    * 97% of Google Revenue comes from their advertising services.

    * Google processes 20 Petabyte of information daily.

    * As of December 2009, Google’s assets were valued at $40.5 billion.

    * Google has a world-class staff of more than 2,668 employees known as Googlers. The company headquarters is called the Googleplex.

    * Google’s index of web pages is the largest in the world, comprising of billions of web pages. Google searches this immense collection of web pages often in less than half asecond.

    * All the letters used in the ‘Google’ word are copyrighted by Google. According to forecasts, Google will buy rights for other letters soon (which made Chinese and Japanese very happy). The company name won’t change, though.

    * When Google started it indexed 25,000 web pages. Today Google indexes billions of web pages and each time it grows by 10-25%.

    * According to Google “As the web grows search becomes more and more important”. It acts like a library , the bigger the library the more important is the index.

    * The biggest break in search came when Google introduced their improved spell checker seen as “Did you mean ?”. This feature doubled their traffic and soon the developers discovered that the ideal placement was at the bottom of the search results.

    * Every now and then Google makes small changes and test them with a given set of users. The users aren’t told of this. They are presented with a new interface and the testers observe how the users react to it.

    * There isn’t any restriction for proper dress code in the Google office. This may include pajamas and even super hero costumes

    * Google receives daily search requests from all over the world, including Antarctica.

    * Google’s Home Page Has 63 Validation Errors. 

    * The Google search engine receives about a billion search requests per day.

    * The infamous “I’m feeling lucky” button is nearly never used. However, in trials it was     found that removing it would somehow reduce the Google experience. Users wanted it kept. It was a comfort button.

    * Due to the sparseness of the homepage, in early user tests they noted people just sitting looking at the screen. After a minute of nothingness, the tester intervened and asked ‘Whats up?’ to which they replied “We are waiting for the rest of it”. To solve that particular problem the Google Copyright message was inserted to act as a crude end of page marker.

    * The name ‘Google’ was an accident. A spelling mistake made by the original founders who thought they were going for ‘Googol’.

    * Google has the largest network of translators in the world.

    * Employees are encouraged to use 20% of their time working on their own projects. Google News, Orkut are both examples of projects that grew from this working model.

    * Google consists of over 450,000 servers, racked up in clusters located in data centers around the world.

    * Google started in January, 1996 as a research project at Stanford University, by Ph.D. candidates Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were 24 years old and 23 years old respectively.

    * Google is a mathematical term 1 followed by one hundred zeroes. The term was coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American mathematician Edward Kasne.

    * Number of languages in which you can have the Google home page set up, including Urdu, Latin and Klingon: 88

    * Google translates billions of HTML web pages into a display format for WAP and i-mode phones and wireless handheld devices.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    A Caster Bean Plant
    A plant that appears green and a little unique in appearance easily hides the potent toxicity behind it. Like all the others, its fresh star shaped leaves often invite many passing herbivores – no wonder many animals stop to ingest and the danger behind these plants are too well hidden to be seen. Resting with the most Deadliest Plant toxin in the world – 6, 0000 times more noxious than cyanide, this plant has been known as a ‘wonder plant’ for thousands of years and you may know it as the Caster Bean plant.
    The caster bean plant is a fast –growing suckering perennial shrub which often reaches the size of small trees (39 feet). The glossy leaves vary from a reddish tinge, to dark green and a reddish purple and sit amongst the fruit capsules and varieties of flowers that line across the leaves in twists of red, green and yellow. Doesn’t sound so harmful does it? The secret of their dangerous poison lays not in the leaves, not in the stem but where they can disperse of them the most – their seeds!
    Over  50% of the plant is comprised of rich oil – and to assist is a remarkable anti- predatory evolution substance of ricin – a protein toxic to almost every species in the animal kingdom.  If the poison is to become ingested by any passing hungry species, it inactivates the key protein making elements of a cell – a vital component for cells to maintain themselves, so without it – many cells in the animal die, resulting in a domino wave and eventually killing the consumer.
    The toxin is just as potent in humans, the only difference is that for us – death is prolonged, often ending in failure of the liver and other major organs, losing life to convulsions and still as of today, there are no existing antidotes. Poisoning, luckily, is not very common throughout society, but unfortunately there have been many cases reported of poisoning via accidental consumption of the seeds. The reason why these seeds cause such harm is due to their ability to delaying symptoms of consumption of up to 36 hours. Symptoms include, burning sensations in the mouth, dehydration, abdominal pain, drop in blood pressure and diarrhoea. The result in delayed treatment – prevents the damaged cells from becoming recovered.
    Poisoning only occurs if the consumer has ingested broken down seeds after chewing, as fully intact seeds often pass through the digestive tract without releasing the toxin. The amount of seeds consumed that inflicts death varies on the species: only 4 seeds will kill a rabbit, 6 within a horse, 11 a dog and 4 – 8 seeds for us. Ducks are a remarkable exception as they have become extremely resistant to the seeds – it takes the consumption of over 80 to kill them!Like many harmful substances that are produced from the environment – they are free and easy to farm/ snatch from their habitats. During the 1900’s many people became aware of how deadly ricin really was, and began producing it for biological warfare. Smaller parties even took the substance in to their own hands, using it like a weapon – in the same way a knife or bullet would cause destruction and havoc to the tissues of the body once struck.
    A famous case occurred in Waterloo station in London during 1978 – a man named Georgi Markov, one of BBC’s journalists, was murdered whilst waiting at a bus stop. He was stabbed with an umbrella end that injected a pellet containing ricin into his skin.  Markov developed a high fever, suffered from immense pain and died three days later.Despite bearing such a scary substance – the alternative oil held within the seeds are a favourite – being extracted and used world wide. The castor plant is indigenous to the South-eastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa and India but the oils from this plant have been used globally for the past 4,000 years as lamp oil. This is also an ingredient of soap, some medicines, waxes, polishes, candles and crayons. New research may also be proving that the beans substances may even provide a cure for tumours. The global castor seed production is a large 1 million tons per year. The leading producing areas include India (60% of the global yield), china and Brazil. Ethiopia also holds several active breeding sites. Lets just hope that as the demand for the twisty combination of deadly meets handy is used sensibly, and not in the cases of Georgi Markov.
    Despite causing worry in human consumers, this plant is a prime species to represent the significant techniques of anti- predatory consumption. Producing the deadliest toxin in the world, yet ensuring attraction to passer pollinators is one of the many impressive and feared plants in the world.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  
    Nature

    The Deadliest Plant in the World

    Spark buzz  |  at  07:02

    A Caster Bean Plant
    A plant that appears green and a little unique in appearance easily hides the potent toxicity behind it. Like all the others, its fresh star shaped leaves often invite many passing herbivores – no wonder many animals stop to ingest and the danger behind these plants are too well hidden to be seen. Resting with the most Deadliest Plant toxin in the world – 6, 0000 times more noxious than cyanide, this plant has been known as a ‘wonder plant’ for thousands of years and you may know it as the Caster Bean plant.
    The caster bean plant is a fast –growing suckering perennial shrub which often reaches the size of small trees (39 feet). The glossy leaves vary from a reddish tinge, to dark green and a reddish purple and sit amongst the fruit capsules and varieties of flowers that line across the leaves in twists of red, green and yellow. Doesn’t sound so harmful does it? The secret of their dangerous poison lays not in the leaves, not in the stem but where they can disperse of them the most – their seeds!
    Over  50% of the plant is comprised of rich oil – and to assist is a remarkable anti- predatory evolution substance of ricin – a protein toxic to almost every species in the animal kingdom.  If the poison is to become ingested by any passing hungry species, it inactivates the key protein making elements of a cell – a vital component for cells to maintain themselves, so without it – many cells in the animal die, resulting in a domino wave and eventually killing the consumer.
    The toxin is just as potent in humans, the only difference is that for us – death is prolonged, often ending in failure of the liver and other major organs, losing life to convulsions and still as of today, there are no existing antidotes. Poisoning, luckily, is not very common throughout society, but unfortunately there have been many cases reported of poisoning via accidental consumption of the seeds. The reason why these seeds cause such harm is due to their ability to delaying symptoms of consumption of up to 36 hours. Symptoms include, burning sensations in the mouth, dehydration, abdominal pain, drop in blood pressure and diarrhoea. The result in delayed treatment – prevents the damaged cells from becoming recovered.
    Poisoning only occurs if the consumer has ingested broken down seeds after chewing, as fully intact seeds often pass through the digestive tract without releasing the toxin. The amount of seeds consumed that inflicts death varies on the species: only 4 seeds will kill a rabbit, 6 within a horse, 11 a dog and 4 – 8 seeds for us. Ducks are a remarkable exception as they have become extremely resistant to the seeds – it takes the consumption of over 80 to kill them!Like many harmful substances that are produced from the environment – they are free and easy to farm/ snatch from their habitats. During the 1900’s many people became aware of how deadly ricin really was, and began producing it for biological warfare. Smaller parties even took the substance in to their own hands, using it like a weapon – in the same way a knife or bullet would cause destruction and havoc to the tissues of the body once struck.
    A famous case occurred in Waterloo station in London during 1978 – a man named Georgi Markov, one of BBC’s journalists, was murdered whilst waiting at a bus stop. He was stabbed with an umbrella end that injected a pellet containing ricin into his skin.  Markov developed a high fever, suffered from immense pain and died three days later.Despite bearing such a scary substance – the alternative oil held within the seeds are a favourite – being extracted and used world wide. The castor plant is indigenous to the South-eastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa and India but the oils from this plant have been used globally for the past 4,000 years as lamp oil. This is also an ingredient of soap, some medicines, waxes, polishes, candles and crayons. New research may also be proving that the beans substances may even provide a cure for tumours. The global castor seed production is a large 1 million tons per year. The leading producing areas include India (60% of the global yield), china and Brazil. Ethiopia also holds several active breeding sites. Lets just hope that as the demand for the twisty combination of deadly meets handy is used sensibly, and not in the cases of Georgi Markov.
    Despite causing worry in human consumers, this plant is a prime species to represent the significant techniques of anti- predatory consumption. Producing the deadliest toxin in the world, yet ensuring attraction to passer pollinators is one of the many impressive and feared plants in the world.


    Did You Find This Article Useful ? Share It  

    General

    © 2013 Enaturalicious. WP Mythemeshop Converted by Bloggertheme9
    Blogger Template. Powered by Blogger.